A ceramic semi-finished product can be a brick or a tile, but also a façade panel, stone strip, roof tile, reed frost or so-called 3-D shapes are also known as shaped parts. Koninklijke Tichelaar has all known forming techniques, such as presses (ram and hand presses), extrusion and molding in-house to produce any desired semi-finished product. Nevertheless, we choose to purchase some semi-finished products, which will always be the case with bricks. When we purchase, we discuss and analyze the customer's wishes accurately. Using our 400 years of rich experience with ceramics, we are looking for the right solution worldwide. Another time it is better to manufacture the semi-finished product yourself. Self-fabrication is always the case when a solution requires a combination of techniques.
To meet the relevant quality criteria, the end product is tested and certified by an independent institute. The semi-finished products that we make and use to glaze, meet the highest quality criteria and are regularly tested by an independent institute, for example the moldings have to meet the highest quality criteria, whereby in addition to, for example, frost resistance, certificates are also issued on various mechanical properties such as soft- ware. and hard body impact tests, bending strength, moisture absorption, etc.
For the restoration of ceramic facades and roofs, we re-create ceramic moldings. Also from contemporary architecture is increasingly asked for this possibility. Three-dimensional moldings, whether or not glazed, are generally made by us by means of sludge molding. With larger numbers per model pieces can also be made with the extruder. The English market is increasingly calling on us for this type of assignment. The moldings meet the highest quality criteria, whereby in addition to, for example, frost resistance, certificates are also issued on various mechanical properties such as soft and hard body impact tests.
For more than 300 years, Makkumer has been making tiles, also called 'white'. We are the only remaining company that still digs up local clay for this and makes the tin glaze according to its own, secret recipes. Following on from these traditional tiles, we have developed a series of thirty new glazes that we also apply to hand-formed tiles, but the clay comes from Germany. In contrast to traditional tiles, they are freeze and therefore suitable for both indoor and outdoor use.
For more than 300 years, pottery has been made in Makkum. Not surprising, because sea clay in our area is sufficiently available. We are also the only remaining company that still produces original Delft pottery. For this, the locally produced clay is fired and covered with a tin glaze manufactured in-house. After careful firing a second time, the characteristic color and gloss is created that can not be matched by any other technique. Clay is a raw material that is created by erosion and contains a lot of the mineral kaolin in its pure form. The further this sedimentary material has been removed from its origin by rain, streams and rivers, the more the kaolin has been changed and polluted with other minerals. Pottery is different from porcelain because the raw material sea clay is the furthest away from its origin and is therefore the most "polluted". As a result, the shard has a much larger porosity and is fired at only 1000 to 1050 degrees C. This is in contrast to porcelain that is cooked at the highest temperature (1300 to 1450 degrees C). Stoneware lies in between and is heated around 1200 degrees.
Ceramics consists of more than just pottery. Porcelain and stoneware also come under this concept. Clay, the most important raw material of ceramics, is caused by erosion, which in pure form contains much of the mineral kaolin. The further this sedimentary material has been removed from its origin by rain, streams and rivers, the more the kaolin has been changed and polluted with other minerals. The clay used for stoneware is extracted from river deposits. For example Germany has a large production of stoneware, think of the famous Cologne pots from the city of the same name. The porosity of the shard is between that of the earthenware and porcelain and is heated around 1200 degrees Celsius.
Ceramics is a collective term for all products made from clay and can be subdivided into earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The distinction is determined by the different raw materials and the baking temperature. Clay, the main raw material of ceramics, is formed by erosion and contains in a pure form much of the mineral kaolin. The purest form is used for the production of porcelain. Thanks to the large share of kaolin, the baked shard has a very dense structure and hardly absorbs water. Porcelain has a firing temperature of between 1300 and 1400 degrees Celsius and is therefore the hardest type of ceramics.